Place all the ingredients for the syrup except the lemon in a small pan and cook over a medium heat, stirring until the sugar has dissolved, then simmer for 8 minutes until syrupy. Stir in the lemon, transfer to a jug and leave to cool in the fridge.
Preheat the oven to 160°C, 140°C fan, gas mark 3. Brush a 25cm square baking tin with the melted butter and layer on 12 pieces of filo pastry, brushing each piece of pastry with butter as you layer it on.
Mix together the nuts then sprinkle over the top layer of pastry and spoon over 6tbsp of the syrup. Cover with the remaining 12 sheets of filo, brushing each with butter as before. Make sure the top piece is well brushed with butter before cutting into 36 pieces. A serrated knife will make cutting through the pastry easier.
Bake for 50 minutes, then turn the heat up to 220°C, 200°C fan, gas mark 7 and cook for another 10 minutes. Remove from the oven and pour over the syrup. Leave to cool completely before serving.
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